Download Advanced Surveying: Total Station, GIS and Remote Sensing PDF - ArushianjaUnit-II Hydrographic Surveying 08 hours Objects, applications, Establishing controls, Shore line survey, Sounding, Sounding Equipment, Methods of locating soundings — conventional and using GPS , Reduction of soundings, Plotting of soundings, Nautical Sextant and its use, Three point problem and its use, solution of three point problem by all methods, Tides and tide gauges, determination of MSL Unit —III Trignometric Levelling and Setting out works 08 hours a Trignometric Levelling - Terrestrial refraction, Angular corrections for curvature and refraction, Axis Signal correction, Determination of Difference in Elevation by single observation and reciprocal observations. Setting out of a bridge, determination of the length of the central line and the location of piers. Setting out of a tunnel — surface setting out and transferring the alignment underground. Unit IV 08 hours Triangulation Adjustment Kinds of errors, Laws of weights, Determination of most probable values MPV of conditioned and independent quantities, Method of Least Squares, Indirect observations, Probable error and its determination, Distribution of error to the field measurements, Normal equation, Method of correlates. Station and figure adjustment of Geodetic Quadrilateral without central station. Spherical triangle, Calculations of spherical excess and sides of spherical triangle. Mirror stereoscope, Differential height from differential parallax.
More From lohit. Please see Figures 1 and 2 for illustrations of the total station and the data collector. Want to Read saving….
Robotic Total Stations are very accurate and less manual operations will be carried out. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis, Monica Dhanasekar. Osman added it Jun 17, 2ed-West--Wiley 7.
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Reference Books 1. Shemul added it Adn 16, Set Stonex R2 in 'Stazione Totale' 4. This was done by testing three total stations by reading through a series of obstructions to fixed prisms.